Macklis JD, Quattrochi JJ. 1991. Restricted diffusion and stability of carbachol-fluorescent nanospheres in-vivo. Neuroreport. 2(5):247-50. Pubmed: 1912455


Mapping neuronal populations that induce behavioral state changes after pharmacological activation requires discrete localization of drug injection sites, and is limited by widespread diffusion of molecular drugs. Nanospheres with diameters of 50-100 nm can reduce diffusion significantly because of their relatively large sizes. The cholinergic agonist carbachol was radiolabeled with methyl14C and incorporated within a latex nanosphere delivery system (LNDS). We quantitatively compared diffusion of 14C-carbachol within these nanospheres with that of free 14C-carbachol, demonstrating approximately ten-fold reduced radial diffusion by nanospheres 10 min to 24 h post-injection; approximately 90% of injected radioactivity was restricted to regions within approximately 100-150 microns and 1400-1500 microns respectively. Thus, incorporation of active agents such as drugs within nanospheres dramatically increases the precision of their delivery in-vivo (here about 1,000-fold by volume).

Related Faculty

Photo of Jeffrey D. Macklis

Jeffrey Macklis investigates molecular controls and mechanisms over neuron subtype specification, development, diversity, axon guidance-circuit formation, and pathology in the cerebral cortex. His lab seeks to apply developmental controls toward brain and spinal cord regeneration and directed differentiation for in vitro mechanistic modeling using human assembloids.

Search Menu