Hajipour MJ, Mehrani M, Abbasi SH, Amin A, Kassaian SE, Garbern JC, Caracciolo G, Zanganeh S, Chitsazan M, Aghaverdi H, Kamali Shahri SM, Ashkarran A, Raoufi M, Bauser-Heaton H, Zhang J, Muehlschlegel JD, Moore A, Lee RT, Wu JC, Serpooshan V, Mahmoudi M. 2019. Nanoscale Technologies for Prevention and Treatment of Heart Failure: Challenges and Opportunities. Chemical reviews. 119(21):11352-11390. Pubmed: 31490059 DOI:10.1021/acs.chemrev.8b00323


The adult myocardium has a limited regenerative capacity following heart injury, and the lost cells are primarily replaced by fibrotic scar tissue. Suboptimal efficiency of current clinical therapies to resurrect the infarcted heart results in injured heart enlargement and remodeling to maintain its physiological functions. These remodeling processes ultimately leads to ischemic cardiomyopathy and heart failure (HF). Recent therapeutic approaches (e.g., regenerative and nanomedicine) have shown promise to prevent HF postmyocardial infarction in animal models. However, these preclinical, clinical, and technological advancements have yet to yield substantial enhancements in the survival rate and quality of life of patients with severe ischemic injuries. This could be attributed largely to the considerable gap in knowledge between clinicians and nanobioengineers. Development of highly effective cardiac regenerative therapies requires connecting and coordinating multiple fields, including cardiology, cellular and molecular biology, biochemistry and chemistry, and mechanical and materials sciences, among others. This review is particularly intended to bridge the knowledge gap between cardiologists and regenerative nanomedicine experts. Establishing this multidisciplinary knowledge base may help pave the way for developing novel, safer, and more effective approaches that will enable the medical community to reduce morbidity and mortality in HF patients.

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Rich Lee seeks to understand heart failure and metabolic diseases that accompany human aging, and translate that understanding into therapies. Lee is an active clinician, regularly treating patients at Brigham and Women’s Hospital.

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