Cytokine-mobilized peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells (MPB HSC) are widely used for transplantation in the treatment of malignancies, but the mechanism of HSC mobilization is unclear. Although many HSC in bone marrow (BM) cycle rapidly and expand their numbers in response to cytoreductive agents, such as cyclophosphamide (CY), and cytokines, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), MPB HSC are almost all in the G(0) or G(1) phase of the cell cycle. This has raised the question of whether a subset of noncycling BM HSC is selectively released, or whether cycling BM HSC are mobilized after M phase, but before the next S phase of the cell cycle. To distinguish between these possibilities, mice were treated with one dose of CY followed by daily doses of G-CSF, and dividing cells were marked by administration of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) during the interval that BM HSC are expanding. After CY and 4 days of G-CSF, 98.5% of the 2n DNA content long-term repopulating MPB (LT)-HSC stained positively for BrdU, and therefore derived from cells that divided during the treatment interval. Next, LT-HSC from mice previously treated with a single dose of CY, which kills cycling cells, and 3 daily doses of G-CSF, were nearly all killed by a second dose of CY, suggesting that CY/G-CSF causes virtually all LT-HSC to cycle. Analysis of cyclin D2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and total RNA content of MPB HSC suggests that these cells are mostly in G(1) phase. After CY/G-CSF treatment, virtually all BM LT-HSC enter the cell cycle; some of these HSC then migrate into the blood, specifically after M phase, and are rapidly recruited to particular hematopoietic organs.