Douglas Melton, PhD

Douglas Melton, PhD

Principal Investigator
Xander University Professor at Harvard University
Co-Director, Harvard's Stem Cell Institute
Douglas Melton, PhD

Dr. Melton is the Xander University Professor at Harvard University and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. He is also a co-director of Harvard's Stem Cell Institute.

Dr. Melton earned a bachelor's degree in biology from the University of Illinois and then went to Cambridge University in England as a Marshall Scholar. He earned a B.A. in history and philosophy of science at Cambridge University and remained there to earn a Ph.D. in molecular biology at Trinity College, Cambridge, and the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology.

Selected publications

Search for journal papers by Dr. Douglas Melton

Millman JR, Xie C, Van Dervort A, Gurtler M, Pagliuca FW, Melton DA. (2016) Generation of stem cell-derived β-cells from patients with type 1 diabetes. Nat Commun. 10 (7):11463. doi: 10.1038/ncomms11463.  PMID: 27163171

Vegas AJ, Gürtler M, Millman JR, Pagliuca ARB, Doloff JC, Li J, Chen M, Olejnik K, Tam HH, Jhunjhunwala S, et al. (2016) Long-term glycemic control using polymer-encapsulated human stem cell-derived beta cells in immune-competent mice. Nat Med 22 (3):306-11.

DA M. (2016) Applied Developmental Biology: Making Human Pancreatic Beta Cells for Diabetics. Current Topics in Developmental Biology (117):65-73.

Chetty S, Engquist EN, Mehanna E, Lui KO, Tsankov AM, Melton DA. (2015) A Src inhibitor regulates the cell cycle of human pluripotent stem cells and improves directed differentiation. J Cell Biol 210 (7):1257-68.

Kenty JH, Melton DA. (2015) Testing pancreatic islet function at the single cell level by calcium influx with associated marker expression. PLoS One eCollection.

Sinisa H, Francis D, W. O'DC, K GD, A MD. (2014) MARIS: method for analyzing RNA following intracellular sorting. PLoS One 9 (3):e89459.

W. PF, R. MJ, Mads G, Michael S, Alana VD, Hyoje RJ, P. PQ, Dale G, A MD. (2014) Generation of functional human pancreatic β cells in vitro. Cell 159 (2):428-39.

Blum B, Roose AN, Barrandon O, Maehr R, Arvanites AC, Davidow LS, Davis JC, Peterson QP, Rubin LL, Melton DA. (2014) Reversal of β cell de-differentiation by a small molecule inhibitor of the TGFβ pathway. Elife 3:e02809. PMCID: PMC4204634.

Sneddon JB, Borowiak M, Melton DA. (2012) Self-renewal of embryonic-stem-cell-derived progenitors by organ-matched mesenchyme. Nature 491 (7426):765-8.

Blum, B., Hrvatin, S., D. A. Melton, et al. (2012). Functional beta-cell maturation is marked by an increased glucose threshold and by expression of urocortin 3. Nat Biotechnol 30(3): 261-264.

Annes, J. P., Ryu, J. H., D. A. Melton, et al. (2012). Adenosine kinase inhibition selectively promotes rodent and porcine islet beta-cell replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(10): 3915-3920.

Sherwood, R. I., R. Maehr, et al. (2011). Wnt signaling specifies and patterns intestinal endoderm. Mech Dev 128(7-10): 387-400.
Melton, D. A. (2011). "Using stem cells to study and possibly treat type 1 diabetes." Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366(1575): 2307-2311.

Egli, D., Chen, A. E., D. A. Melton, et al. (2011). Impracticality of egg donor recruitment in the absence of compensation. Cell Stem Cell 9(4): 293-294.

Egli, D., Chen, A. E., D. A. Melton, et al. (2011). Reprogramming within hours following nuclear transfer into mouse but not human zygotes. Nat Commun 2: 488.

Cohen, D. E. and D. Melton (2011). Turning straw into gold: directing cell fate for regenerative medicine. Nat Rev Genet 12(4): 243-252.

Niakan, K. K., Ji, H., D. A. Melton, et al. (2010). Sox17 promotes differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells by directly regulating extraembryonic gene expression and indirectly antagonizing self-renewal. Genes Dev 24(3): 312-326.

Sherwood, R. I., Chen, T. Y., D. Am. Melton, et al. (2009). Transcriptional dynamics of endodermal organ formation. Dev Dyn 238(1): 29-42.

Maehr, R., Chen, S., D. A. Melton, et al. (2009). "Generation of pluripotent stem cells from patients with type 1 diabetes." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(37): 15768-15773.

Guseh, J. S., Bores, S. A., D. A. Melton, et al. (2009). "Notch signaling promotes airway mucous metaplasia and inhibits alveolar development." Development 136(10): 1751-1759.

Chen, S., Borowiak, M., D. A. Melton, et al. (2009). "A small molecule that directs differentiation of human ESCs into the pancreatic lineage." Nat Chem Biol 5(4): 258-265.

Chen, A. E., Egli, D., D. A. Melton, et al. (2009). "Optimal timing of inner cell mass isolation increases the efficiency of human embryonic stem cell derivation and allows generation of sibling cell lines." Cell Stem Cell 4(2): 103-106.

Brennand, K. and D. Melton (2009). "Slow and steady is the key to beta-cell replication." J Cell Mol Med 13(3): 472-487.

Borowiak, M. and D. A. Melton (2009). "How to make beta cells?" Curr Opin Cell Biol 21(6): 727-732.

Borowiak, M., Maehr, R., D. A. Melton, et al. (2009). "Small molecules efficiently direct endodermal differentiation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells." Cell Stem Cell 4(4): 348-358.

Zhou, Q. and D. A. Melton (2008). "Pathways to new beta cells." Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 73: 175-181.

Zhou, Q. and D. A. Melton (2008). "Extreme makeover: converting one cell into another." Cell Stem Cell 3(4): 382-388.

Zhou, Q., Brown, J., D. A. Melton, et al. (2008). "In vivo reprogramming of adult pancreatic exocrine cells to beta-cells." Nature 455(7213): 627-632.

Rajagopal, J., Carroll, T. J., D. A. Melton, et al. (2008). "Wnt7b stimulates embryonic lung growth by coordinately increasing the replication of epithelium and mesenchyme." Development 135(9): 1625-1634.

Osafune, K., Caron, L., D. A. Melton, et al. (2008). "Marked differences in differentiation propensity among human embryonic stem cell lines." Nat Biotechnol 26(3): 313-315.

Huangfu, D., Osafune, K., D. A. Melton, et al. (2008). "Induction of pluripotent stem cells from primary human fibroblasts with only Oct4 and Sox2." Nat Biotechnol 26(11): 1269-1275.

Huangfu, D., Maehr, R., D. A. Melton, et al. (2008). "Induction of pluripotent stem cells by defined factors is greatly improved by small-molecule compounds." Nat Biotechnol 26(7): 795-797.

Gurdon, J. B. and D. A. Melton (2008). "Nuclear reprogramming in cells." Science 322(5909): 1811-1815.

Dor, Y. and D. A. Melton (2008). "Facultative endocrine progenitor cells in the adult pancreas." Cell 132(2): 183-184.

Anderson, W. J., Zhou, Q., D. A. Melton, et al. (2008). "Genetic targeting of the endoderm with claudin-6CreER." Dev Dyn 237(2): 504-512.

Zhou, Q., Law, A. C., D. A. Melton, et al. (2007). "A multipotent progenitor domain guides pancreatic organogenesis." Dev Cell 13(1): 103-114.

Zhou, Q., Chipperfield, H., D. A. Melton, et al. (2007). "A gene regulatory network in mouse embryonic stem cells." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(42): 16438-16443.

Stanger, B. Z., Tanaka, A. J., D. A. Melton, et al. (2007). "Organ size is limited by the number of embryonic progenitor cells in the pancreas but not the liver." Nature 445(7130): 886-891.

Sherwood, R. I., Jitianu, C., D. A. Melton, et al. (2007). "Prospective isolation and global gene expression analysis of definitive and visceral endoderm." Dev Biol 304(2): 541-555.

Nir, T., D. A. Melton, et al. (2007). "Recovery from diabetes in mice by beta cell regeneration." J Clin Invest 117(9): 2553-2561.

Melton, D. and J. Henderson (2007). "Do public schools provide optimal support for children with diabetes?" Prev Chronic Dis 4(3): A78.

Greenwood, A. L., Li, S. D. A. Melton, et al. (2007). "Notch signaling reveals developmental plasticity of Pax4(+) pancreatic endocrine progenitors and shunts them to a duct fate." Mech Dev 124(2): 97-107.

Chen, A. E. and D. A. Melton (2007). "Derivation of human embryonic stem cells by immunosurgery." J Vis Exp(10): 574.

Brennand, K., Huangfu, D., D. A. Melton, et al. (2007). "All beta cells contribute equally to islet growth and maintenance." PLoS Biol 5(7): e163.

Nikolova, G., Jabs, N., D. A. Melton, et al. (2006). "The vascular basement membrane: a niche for insulin gene expression and Beta cell proliferation." Dev Cell 10(3): 397-405.

Melton, D. A. (2006). "Reversal of type 1 diabetes in mice." N Engl J Med 355(1): 89-90.

Lee, T. I., Jenner, R. G., D. A. Melton, et al. (2006). "Control of developmental regulators by Polycomb in human embryonic stem cells." Cell 125(2): 301-313.

Akutsu, H., Cowan, C. A., D. A. Melton, et al. (2006). "Human embryonic stem cells." Methods Enzymol 418: 78-92.

Stanger, B. Z., Stiles, B., D. A. Melton, et al. (2005). "Pten constrains centroacinar cell expansion and malignant transformation in the pancreas." Cancer Cell 8(3): 185-195.

Stanger, B. Z., Datar, R., D. A. Melton, et al. (2005). "Direct regulation of intestinal fate by Notch." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(35): 12443-12448.

Shaywitz, D. A. and D. A. Melton (2005). "The molecular biography of the cell." Cell 120(6): 729-731.

Murtaugh, L. C., Law, A. C., D. A. Melton, et al. (2005). "Beta-catenin is essential for pancreatic acinar but not islet development." Development 132(21): 4663-4674.

Cowan, C. A., Atienza, J., D. A. Melton, et al. (2005). "Nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells after fusion with human embryonic stem cells." Science 309(5739): 1369-1373.

Boyer, L. A., Lee, T. I., D. A. Melton, et al. (2005). "Core transcriptional regulatory circuitry in human embryonic stem cells." Cell 122(6): 947-956.

Melton, D. A., G. Q. Daley, et al. (2004). "Altered nuclear transfer in stem-cell research - a flawed proposal." N Engl J Med 351(27): 2791-2792.

Hansson, M., Tonning, A., D. A. Melton, et al. (2004). "Artifactual insulin release from differentiated embryonic stem cells." Diabetes 53(10): 2603-2609.

Gu, G., Wells, J. M., D. A. Melton, et al. (2004). "Global expression analysis of gene regulatory pathways during endocrine pancreatic development." Development 131(1): 165-179.

Dor, Y. and D. A. Melton (2004). "How important are adult stem cells for tissue maintenance?" Cell Cycle 3(9): 1104-1106.

Dor, Y., Brown, J., D. A. Melton, et al. (2004). "Adult pancreatic beta-cells are formed by self-duplication rather than stem-cell differentiation." Nature 429(6987): 41-46.

Cowan, C. A., Klimanskaya, I., D. A. Melton, et al. (2004). "Derivation of embryonic stem-cell lines from human blastocysts." N Engl J Med 350(13): 1353-1356.

Anneren, C., Cowan, C. A., D. A. Melton, et al. (2004). "The Src family of tyrosine kinases is important for embryonic stem cell self-renewal." J Biol Chem 279(30): 31590-31598.

Rajagopal, J., Anderson, W. J., D. A. Melton, et al. (2003). "Insulin staining of ES cell progeny from insulin uptake." Science 299(5605): 363.

Murtaugh, L. C., Stanger, B. Z., D. A. Melton, et al. (2003). "Notch signaling controls multiple steps of pancreatic differentiation." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(25): 14920-14925.

Murtaugh, L. C. and D. A. Melton (2003). "Genes, signals, and lineages in pancreas development." Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 19: 71-89.

Lammert, E., Gu, G., D. A. Melton, et al. (2003). "Role of VEGF-A in vascularization of pancreatic islets." Curr Biol 13(12): 1070-1074.

Lammert, E., Cleaver, O., D. A. Melton, et al. (2003). "Role of endothelial cells in early pancreas and liver development." Mech Dev 120(1): 59-64.

Kumar, M. and D. Melton (2003). "Pancreas specification: a budding question." Curr Opin Genet Dev 13(4): 401-407.

Kumar, M., Jordan, N., D. A. Melton, et al. (2003). "Signals from lateral plate mesoderm instruct endoderm toward a pancreatic fate." Dev Biol 259(1): 109-122.

Gu, G., Brown, J. R., D. A. Melton, et al. (2003). "Direct lineage tracing reveals the ontogeny of pancreatic cell fates during mouse embryogenesis." Mech Dev 120(1): 35-43.

Cleaver, O. and D. A. Melton (2003). "Endothelial signaling during development." Nat Med 9(6): 661-668.

Chiang, M. K. and D. A. Melton (2003). "Single-cell transcript analysis of pancreas development." Dev Cell 4(3): 383-393.

Brivanlou, A. H., Gage, F. H., D. A. Melton, et al. (2003). "Stem cells. Setting standards for human embryonic stem cells." Science 300(5621): 913-916.

Tuzi, N. L., Gall, E., D. A. Melton, et al. (2002). "Expression of doppel in the CNS of mice does not modulate transmissible spongiform encephalopathy disease." J Gen Virol 83(Pt 3): 705-711.

Scearce, L. M., Brestelli, J. E., D. A. Melton, et al. (2002). "Functional genomics of the endocrine pancreas: the pancreas clone set and PancChip, new resources for diabetes research." Diabetes 51(7): 1997-2004.

Ramalho-Santos, M., Yoon, S., D. A. Melton, et al. (2002). ""Stemness": transcriptional profiling of embryonic and adult stem cells." Science 298(5593): 597-600.

Gu, G., Dubauskaite, J., D. A. Melton, et al. (2002). "Direct evidence for the pancreatic lineage: NGN3+ cells are islet progenitors and are distinct from duct progenitors." Development 129(10): 2447-2457.

Fishman, M. P. and D. A. Melton (2002). "Pancreatic lineage analysis using a retroviral vector in embryonic mice demonstrates a common progenitor for endocrine and exocrine cells." Int J Dev Biol 46(2): 201-207.

Lammert, E., Cleaver, O., D. A. Melton, et al. (2001). "Induction of pancreatic differentiation by signals from blood vessels." Science 294(5542): 564-567.

Huang, H., Vogel, S. S., D. A. Melton, et al. (2001). "Analysis of pancreatic development in living transgenic zebrafish embryos." Mol Cell Endocrinol 177(1-2): 117-124.

Grapin-Botton, A., Majithia, A. R., D. A. Melton, et al. (2001). "Key events of pancreas formation are triggered in gut endoderm by ectopic expression of pancreatic regulatory genes." Genes Dev 15(4): 444-454.

Wells, J. M. and D. A. Melton (2000). "Early mouse endoderm is patterned by soluble factors from adjacent germ layers." Development 127(8): 1563-1572.

Schuldiner, M., Yanuka, O., D. A. Melton, et al. (2000). "Effects of eight growth factors on the differentiation of cells derived from human embryonic stem cells." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(21): 11307-11312.

Ramalho-Santos, M., D. A. Melton, et al. (2000). "Hedgehog signals regulate multiple aspects of gastrointestinal development." Development 127(12): 2763-2772.

Lammert, E., Brown, J., D. A. Melton, et al. (2000). "Notch gene expression during pancreatic organogenesis." Mech Dev 94(1-2): 199-203.

Kim, S. K., Hebrok, M., D. A. Melton, et al. (2000). "Activin receptor patterning of foregut organogenesis." Genes Dev 14(15): 1866-1871.

Kelly, O. G. and D. A. Melton (2000). "Development of the pancreas in Xenopus laevis." Dev Dyn 218(4): 615-627.

Hebrok, M., Kim, S. K., D. A. Melton, et al. (2000). "Regulation of pancreas development by hedgehog signaling." Development 127(22): 4905-4913.

Grapin-Botton, A. and D. A. Melton (2000). "Endoderm development: from patterning to organogenesis." Trends Genet 16(3): 124-130.

Wells, J. M. and D. A. Melton (1999). "Vertebrate endoderm development." Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 15: 393-410.

Hebrok, M., Kim, S. K., D. A. Melton, et al. (1999). "Screening for novel pancreatic genes expressed during embryogenesis." Diabetes 48(8): 1550-1556.

Kim, S. K. and D. A. Melton (1998). "Pancreas development is promoted by cyclopamine, a hedgehog signaling inhibitor." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(22): 13036-13041.

Joseph, E. M. and D. A. Melton (1998). "Mutant Vg1 ligands disrupt endoderm and mesoderm formation in Xenopus embryos." Development 125(14): 2677-2685.

Henry, G. L. and D. A. Melton (1998). "Mixer, a homeobox gene required for endoderm development." Science 281(5373): 91-96.

Hebrok, M., Kim, S. K., D. A. Melton, et al. (1998). "Notochord repression of endodermal Sonic hedgehog permits pancreas development." Genes Dev 12(11): 1705-1713.

Melton, D. (1997). "Signals for tissue induction and organ formation in vertebrate embryos." Harvey Lect 93: 49-64.

Kim, S. K., Hebrok, M., D. A. Melton, et al. (1997). "Pancreas development in the chick embryo." Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 62: 377-383.

Kim, S. K., Hebrok, M., D. A. Melton, et al. (1997). "Notochord to endoderm signaling is required for pancreas development." Development 124(21): 4243-4252.

Joseph, E. M. and D. A. Melton (1997). "Xnr4: a Xenopus nodal-related gene expressed in the Spemann organizer." Dev Biol 184(2): 367-372.

Hemmati-Brivanlou, A. and D. Melton (1997). "Vertebrate embryonic cells will become nerve cells unless told otherwise." Cell 88(1): 13-17.

Reilly, K. M. and D. A. Melton (1996). "Short-range signaling by candidate morphogens of the TGF beta family and evidence for a relay mechanism of induction." Cell 86(5): 743-754.

Newfeld, S. J., Chartoff, E., H., D. A. Melton, et al. (1996). "Mothers against dpp encodes a conserved cytoplasmic protein required in DPP/TGF-beta responsive cells." Development 122(7): 2099-2108.

Klein, P. S. and D. A. Melton (1996). "A molecular mechanism for the effect of lithium on development." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93(16): 8455-8459.

Henry, G. L., Brivanlou, I. H., D. A. Melton, et al. (1996). "TGF-beta signals and a pattern in Xenopus laevis endodermal development." Development 122(3): 1007-1015.

Graff, J. M., Bansal, A., D. A. Melton, et al. (1996). "Xenopus Mad proteins transduce distinct subsets of signals for the TGF beta superfamily." Cell 85(4): 479-487.

Dohrmann, C. E., Kessler, D. S., D. A. Melton, et al. (1996). "Induction of axial mesoderm by zDVR-1, the zebrafish orthologue of Xenopus Vg1." Dev Biol 175(1): 108-117.

Derynck, R., Gelbart, W. M., D. A. Melton, et al. (1996). "Nomenclature: vertebrate mediators of TGFbeta family signals." Cell 87(2): 173.

Klein, P. S. and D. A. Melton (1995). "Translational control of activin in Xenopus laevis embryos." Dev Genet 17(1): 55-64.

Kessler, D. S. and D. A. Melton (1995). "Induction of dorsal mesoderm by soluble, mature Vg1 protein." Development 121(7): 2155-2164.

Kelly, O. G. and D. A. Melton (1995). "Induction and patterning of the vertebrate nervous system." Trends Genet 11(7): 273-278.

Wilson, P. A. and D. A. Melton (1994). "Mesodermal patterning by an inducer gradient depends on secondary cell-cell communication." Curr Biol 4(8): 676-686.

Klein, P. S. and D. A. Melton (1994). "Hormonal regulation of embryogenesis: the formation of mesoderm in Xenopus laevis." Endocr Rev 15(3): 326-341.

Klein, P. S. and D. A. Melton (1994). "Induction of mesoderm in Xenopus laevis embryos by translation initiation factor 4E." Science 265(5173): 803-806.

Kessler, D. S. and D. A. Melton (1994). "Vertebrate embryonic induction: mesodermal and neural patterning." Science 266(5185): 596-604.

Hemmati-Brivanlou, A. and D. A. Melton (1994). "Inhibition of activin receptor signaling promotes neuralization in Xenopus." Cell 77(2): 273-281.

Hemmati-Brivanlou, A., Kelly, O. G., D. A. Melton, et al. (1994). "Follistatin, an antagonist of activin, is expressed in the Spemann organizer and displays direct neuralizing activity." Cell 77(2): 283-295.

Graff, J. M., Thies, R. S., D. A. Melton, et al. (1994). "Studies with a Xenopus BMP receptor suggest that ventral mesoderm-inducing signals override dorsal signals in vivo." Cell 79(1): 169-179.

Thomsen, G. H. and D. A. Melton (1993). "Processed Vg1 protein is an axial mesoderm inducer in Xenopus." Cell 74(3): 433-441.

Steinbeisser, H., De Robertis, E. M., D. A. Melton, et al. (1993). "Xenopus axis formation: induction of goosecoid by injected Xwnt-8 and activin mRNAs." Development 118(2): 499-507.

Ku, M. and D. A. Melton (1993). "Xwnt-11: a maternally expressed Xenopus wnt gene." Development 119(4): 1161-1173.

Dohrmann, C. E., Hemmati-Brivanlou, A., D. A. Melton, et al. (1993). "Expression of activin mRNA during early development in Xenopus laevis." Dev Biol 157(2): 474-483.

Whitman, M. and D. A. Melton (1992). "Involvement of p21ras in Xenopus mesoderm induction." Nature 357(6375): 252-254.

Sokol, S. Y. and D. A. Melton (1992). "Interaction of Wnt and activin in dorsal mesoderm induction in Xenopus." Dev Biol 154(2): 348-355.

Mowry, K. L. and D. A. Melton (1992). "Vegetal messenger RNA localization directed by a 340-nt RNA sequence element in Xenopus oocytes." Science 255(5047): 991-994.

Jessell, T. M. and D. A. Melton (1992). "Diffusible factors in vertebrate embryonic induction." Cell 68(2): 257-270.

Hemmati-Brivanlou, A., Wright, D. A., D. A. Melton, et al. (1992). "Embryonic expression and functional analysis of a Xenopus activin receptor." Dev Dyn 194(1): 1-11.

Hemmati-Brivanlou, A. and D. A. Melton (1992). "A truncated activin receptor inhibits mesoderm induction and formation of axial structures in Xenopus embryos." Nature 359(6396): 609-614.

Vize, P. D., D. A. Melton, et al. (1991). "Assays for gene function in developing Xenopus embryos." Methods Cell Biol 36: 367-387.

Sokol, S. and D. A. Melton (1991). "Pre-existent pattern in Xenopus animal pole cells revealed by induction with activin." Nature 351(6325): 409-411.

Sokol, S., Christian, J. L., D. A. Melton, et al. (1991). "Injected Wnt RNA induces a complete body axis in Xenopus embryos." Cell 67(4): 741-752.

O'Keefe, H. P., D. A. Melton, et al. (1991). "In situ hyridization." Methods Cell Biol 36: 443-463.

Melton, D. A. (1991). "Pattern formation during animal development." Science 252(5003): 234-241.

Gururajan, R., Perry-O'Keefe, H., D. A. Melton, et al. (1991). "The Xenopus localized messenger RNA An3 may encode an ATP-dependent RNA helicase." Nature 349(6311): 717-719.

Yisraeli, J. K., Sokol, S., D. A. Melton, et al. (1990). "A two-step model for the localization of maternal mRNA in Xenopus oocytes: involvement of microtubules and microfilaments in the translocation and anchoring of Vg1 mRNA." Development 108(2): 289-298.

Woolf, T. M., Jennings, C. G., D. A. Melton, et al. (1990). "The stability, toxicity and effectiveness of unmodified and phosphorothioate antisense oligodeoxynucleotides in Xenopus oocytes and embryos." Nucleic Acids Res 18(7): 1763-1769.

Whitman, M. and D. A. Melton (1990). "Signal transduction during mesoderm induction in Xenopus." J Reprod Fertil Suppl 42: 249-254.

Thomsen, G., Woolf, T., D. A. Melton, et al. (1990). "Activins are expressed early in Xenopus embryogenesis and can induce axial mesoderm and anterior structures." Cell 63(3): 485-493.

Sokol, S., Wong, G. G., D. A. Melton, et al. (1990). "A mouse macrophage factor induces head structures and organizes a body axis in Xenopus." Science 249(4968): 561-564.

Ruiz i Altaba, A. and D. A. Melton (1990). "Axial patterning and the establishment of polarity in the frog embryo." Trends Genet 6(2): 57-64.

Mitrani, E., Ziv, T., D. A. Melton, et al. (1990). "Activin can induce the formation of axial structures and is expressed in the hypoblast of the chick." Cell 63(3): 495-501.

Kondaiah, P., Sands, M. J., D. A. Melton, et al. (1990). "Identification of a novel transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta 5) mRNA in Xenopus laevis." J Biol Chem 265(2): 1089-1093.

Yisraeli, J. K., Sokol, S., D. A. Melton, et al. (1989). "The process of localizing a maternal messenger RNA in Xenopus oocytes." Development 107 Suppl: 31-36.

Yisraeli, J. K. and D. A. Melton (1989). "Synthesis of long, capped transcripts in vitro by SP6 and T7 RNA polymerases." Methods Enzymol 180: 42-50.

Whitman, M. and D. A. Melton (1989). "Growth factors in early embryogenesis." Annu Rev Cell Biol 5: 93-117.

Whitman, M. and D. A. Melton (1989). "Induction of mesoderm by a viral oncogene in early Xenopus embryos." Science 244(4906): 803-806.

Tannahill, D. and D. A. Melton (1989). "Localized synthesis of the Vg1 protein during early Xenopus development." Development 106(4): 775-785.

Ruiz i Altaba, A. and D. A. Melton (1989). "Involvement of the Xenopus homeobox gene Xhox3 in pattern formation along the anterior-posterior axis." Cell 57(2): 317-326.

Ruiz i Altaba, A. and D. A. Melton (1989). "Bimodal and graded expression of the Xenopus homeobox gene Xhox3 during embryonic development." Development 106(1): 173-183.

Ruiz i Altaba, A. and D. A. Melton (1989). "Interaction between peptide growth factors and homoeobox genes in the establishment of antero-posterior polarity in frog embryos." Nature 341(6237): 33-38.

Melton, D. A., A. Ruiz i Altaba, et al. (1989). "Localization of mRNA and axis formation during Xenopus embryogenesis." Ciba Found Symp 144: 16-29; discussion 29-36, 92-18.

Krieg, P. A., Varnum, S. M., D. A. Melton, et al. (1989). "The mRNA encoding elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1 alpha) is a major transcript at the midblastula transition in Xenopus." Dev Biol 133(1): 93-100.

Yisraeli, J. K. and D. A. Melton (1988). "The material mRNA Vg1 is correctly localized following injection into Xenopus oocytes." Nature 336(6199): 592-595.

Mercola, M., D. A. Melton, et al. (1988). "Platelet-derived growth factor A chain is maternally encoded in Xenopus embryos." Science 241(4870): 1223-1225.

Harvey, R. P. and D. A. Melton (1988). "Microinjection of synthetic Xhox-1A homeobox mRNA disrupts somite formation in developing Xenopus embryos." Cell 53(5): 687-697.

Weeks, D. L. and D. A. Melton (1987). "A maternal mRNA localized to the animal pole of Xenopus eggs encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATPase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84(9): 2798-2802.

Weeks, D. L. and D. A. Melton (1987). "A maternal mRNA localized to the vegetal hemisphere in Xenopus eggs codes for a growth factor related to TGF-beta." Cell 51(5): 861-867.

Ruiz i Altaba, A., Perry-O'Keefe, H., D. A. Melton, et al. (1987). "Xfin: an embryonic gene encoding a multifingered protein in Xenopus." EMBO J 6(10): 3065-3070.

Rebagliati, M. R. and D. A. Melton (1987). "Antisense RNA injections in fertilized frog eggs reveal an RNA duplex unwinding activity." Cell 48(4): 599-605.

Melton, D. A. (1987). "Translation of messenger RNA in injected frog oocytes." Methods Enzymol 152: 288-296.

Melton, D. A. (1987). "Translocation of a localized maternal mRNA to the vegetal pole of Xenopus oocytes." Nature 328(6125): 80-82.

Krieg, P. A. and D. A. Melton (1987). "In vitro RNA synthesis with SP6 RNA polymerase." Methods Enzymol 155: 397-415.

Krieg, P. A. and D. A. Melton (1987). "An enhancer responsible for activating transcription at the midblastula transition in Xenopus development." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84(8): 2331-2335.

Kintner, C. R. and D. A. Melton (1987). "Expression of Xenopus N-CAM RNA in ectoderm is an early response to neural induction." Development 99(3): 311-325.

Harvey, R. P., Tabin, C. J., D. A. Melton, et al. (1986). "Embryonic expression and nuclear localization of Xenopus homeobox (Xhox) gene products." EMBO J 5(6): 1237-1244.

Weeks, D. L., Rebagliati, M. R., D. A. Melton, et al. (1985). "Localized maternal mRNAs in Xenopus laevis eggs." Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 50: 21-30.

Rebagliati, M. R., Weeks, D. L., D. A. Melton, et al. (1985). "Identification and cloning of localized maternal RNAs from Xenopus eggs." Cell 42(3): 769-777.

Melton, D. A. (1985). "Injected anti-sense RNAs specifically block messenger RNA translation in vivo." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 82(1): 144-148.

Krieg, P. A. and D. A. Melton (1985). "Developmental regulation of a gastrula-specific gene injected into fertilized Xenopus eggs." EMBO J 4(13A): 3463-3471.

Melton, D. A., P. A. Krieg, et al. (1984). "Efficient in vitro synthesis of biologically active RNA and RNA hybridization probes from plasmids containing a bacteriophage SP6 promoter." Nucleic Acids Res 12(18): 7035-7056.

Krieg, P. A. and D. A. Melton (1984). "Formation of the 3' end of histone mRNA by post-transcriptional processing." Nature 308(5955): 203-206.

Krieg, P. A. and D. A. Melton (1984). "Functional messenger RNAs are produced by SP6 in vitro transcription of cloned cDNAs." Nucleic Acids Res 12(18): 7057-7070.

Perry, H. E. and D. A. Melton (1983). "A rapid increase in acetylcholinesterase mRNA during ascidian embryogenesis as demonstrated by microinjection into Xenopus laevis oocytes." Cell Differ 13(3): 233-238.

Green, M. R., Maniatis, T., D. A. Melton, et al. (1983). "Human beta-globin pre-mRNA synthesized in vitro is accurately spliced in Xenopus oocyte nuclei." Cell 32(3): 681-694.

Ciliberto, G., Castagnoli, L., D. A. Melton, et al. (1982). "Promoter of a eukaryotic tRNAPro gene is composed of tree noncontiguous regions." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 79(4): 1195-1199.

Ciampi, M. S., D. A. Melton, et al. (1982). "Site-directed mutagenesis of a tRNA gene: base alterations in the coding region affect transcription." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 79(5): 1388-1392.

Miller, J. R. and D. A. Melton (1981). "A transcriptionally active pseudogene in xenopus laevis oocyte 5S DNA." Cell 24(3): 829-835.

Gurdon, J. B. and D. A. Melton (1981). "Gene transfer in amphibian eggs and oocytes." Annu Rev Genet 15: 189-218.

Melton, D. A., E. M. De Robertis, et al. (1980). "Order and intracellular location of the events involved in the maturation of a spliced tRNA." Nature 284(5752): 143-148.

Melton, D. A., R. Cortese, et al. (1980). "Gene injection into amphibian oocytes." Results Probl Cell Differ 11: 8-14.

Cortese, R., Harland, R., D. A. Melton, et al. (1980). "Transcription of tRNA genes in vivo: single-stranded compared to double-stranded templates." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 77(7): 4147-4151.

Melton, D. A. and R. Cortese (1979). "Transcription of cloned tRNA genes and the nuclear partitioning of a tRNA precursor." Cell 18(4): 1165-1172.

Gurdon, J. B., D. A. Melton, et al. (1979). "Genetics in an oocyte." Ciba Found Symp(66): 63-80.

Gottesfeld, J. M. and D. A. Melton (1978). "The length of nucleosome-associated DNA is the same in both transcribed and nontranscribed regions of chromatin." Nature 273(5660): 317-319.

Cortese, R., D. Melton, et al. (1978). "Cloning of nematode tRNA genes and their expression in the frog oocyte." Nucleic Acids Res 5(12): 4593-4611.

Stocum, D. L. and D. A. Melton (1977). "Self-organizational capacity of distally transplanted limb regeneration blastemas in larval salamanders." J Exp Zool 201(3): 451-461.

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