Rheumatic heart disease is highly prevalent and associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in many resource-poor areas of the world, including sub-Saharan Africa. Primary and secondary prophylaxis with penicillin has been shown to significantly improve outcomes and is recognised to be the standard of care, with intra-muscular benzathine penicillin G recommended as the preferred agent by many technical experts. However, ensuring compliance with therapy has proven to be challenging. As part of a public-private partnership initiative in Zambia, we conducted an educational and access-to-medicine programme aimed at increasing appropriate use of benzathine penicillin for the prevention and management of rheumatic heart disease, according to national guidelines. The programme was informed early on by identification of potential barriers to the administration of injectable penicillin, which included concern by health workers about allergic events. We describe this programme and report initial signs of success, as indicated by increased use of benzathine penicillin. We propose that a similar approach may have benefits in rheumatic heart disease programmes in other endemic regions.