Astroglia have long been thought to play merely a supporting role in the life of the neuron. However, these star-shaped cells have recently been the focus of intense study that has begun to emphasize remarkable and novel roles for these amazing cells. While astroglia play positive roles in the life of the neuron, they can simultaneously exert negative influences. Kinouchi et al. convincingly demonstrate and characterize an inhibitory role played by astroglia after neuronal transplantation. These findings remind us that astroglia exert positive and negative influences on neuronal survival, migration, neurite outgrowth and functional integration. Here, we review the complementary and often contradictory roles of astroglia during neuronal integration.