Yang SM, Michel K, Jokhi V, Nedivi E, Arlotta P. 2020. Neuron class-specific responses govern adaptive myelin remodeling in the neocortex. Science (New York, N.Y.). 370(6523). Pubmed: 33335032 DOI:10.1126/science.abd2109


Myelin plasticity is critical for neurological function, including learning and memory. However, it is unknown whether this plasticity reflects uniform changes across all neuronal subtypes, or whether myelin dynamics vary between neuronal classes to enable fine-tuning of adaptive circuit responses. We performed in vivo two-photon imaging of myelin sheaths along single axons of excitatory callosal neurons and inhibitory parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in adult mouse visual cortex. We found that both neuron types show homeostatic myelin remodeling under normal vision. However, monocular deprivation results in adaptive myelin remodeling only in parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. An initial increase in elongation of myelin segments is followed by contraction of a separate cohort of segments. This data indicates that distinct classes of neurons individualize remodeling of their myelination profiles to diversify circuit tuning in response to sensory experience.
Copyright © 2020 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

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Dr. Arlotta is interested in understanding the molecular laws that govern the birth, differentiation and assembly of the cerebral cortex, the part of the brain that controls how we sense, move and think. She integrates developmental and evolutionary knowledge to investigate therapies for brain repair and for modeling neuropsychiatric disease.

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