Robarge KD, Brunton SA, Castanedo GM, Cui Y, Dina MS, Goldsmith R, Gould SE, Guichert O, Gunzner JL, Halladay J, Jia W, Khojasteh C, Koehler MF, Kotkow K, La H, Lalonde RL, Lau K, Lee L, Marshall D, Marsters JC, Murray LJ, Qian C, Rubin LL, Salphati L, Stanley MS, Stibbard JH, Sutherlin DP, Ubhayaker S, Wang S, Wong S, Xie M. 2009. GDC-0449-a potent inhibitor of the hedgehog pathway. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters. 19(19):5576-81. Pubmed: 19716296 DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.08.049


SAR for a wide variety of heterocyclic replacements for a benzimidazole led to the discovery of functionalized 2-pyridyl amides as novel inhibitors of the hedgehog pathway. The 2-pyridyl amides were optimized for potency, PK, and drug-like properties by modifications to the amide portion of the molecule resulting in 31 (GDC-0449). Amide 31 produced complete tumor regression at doses as low as 12.5mg/kg BID in a medulloblastoma allograft mouse model that is wholly dependent on the Hh pathway for growth and is currently in human clinical trials, where it is initially being evaluated for the treatment of BCC.

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Lee Rubin investigates the key molecular mediators of different neurodegenerative diseases, with the ultimate goal of finding effective preclinical therapeutic candidates.

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