The beta-cells of the pancreas are responsible for insulin production and their destruction results in type I diabetes. beta-cell maintenance, growth and regenerative repair is thought to occur predominately, if not exclusively, through the replication of existing beta-cells, not via an adult stem cell. It was recently found that all beta-cells contribute equally to islet growth and maintenance. The fact that all beta-cells replicate homogeneously makes it possible to set up straightforward screens for factors that increase beta-cell replication either In vitro or in vivo. It is possible that a circulating factor may be capable of increasing beta-cell replication or that intrinsic cell cycle regulators may affect beta-cell growth. An improved understanding of the in vivo maintenance and growth of beta-cells will facilitate efforts to expand beta-cells In vitro and may lead to new treatments for diabetes.