The complexity and variability of cancer progression necessitate a quantitative paradigm for therapeutic decision-making that is dynamic, personalized, and capable of identifying optimal treatment strategies for individual patients under substantial uncertainty. Here, we discuss the core components and challenges of such an approach and highlight the need for comprehensive longitudinal clinical and molecular data integration in its development. We describe the complementary and varied roles of mathematical modeling and machine learning in constructing dynamic optimal cancer treatment strategies and highlight the potential of reinforcement learning approaches in this endeavor.
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Franziska Michor uses the tools of theoretical evolutionary biology, applied mathematics, statistics, and computational biology to address important questions in cancer research.

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